Installing CPAN modules for perl

Some of the scripts I’ve written and posted on this site require various CPAN modules to be present on the system where the scripts are used.  For the benefit of those who haven’t installed one of these modules before, here’s a step by step using Net::IPv6Addr as an example.

  1. First, switch to the root user; i.e. “su – root” or “sudo su – root” or ssh in as root if your server allows it.
  2. Now, as root, run one simple command:  make
  3. If the above spits out something like this:
    # make
    make: *** No targets specified and no makefile found.  Stop.
    

    then all is good and you can proceed to step 4.  If instead, you see this:

    root@web1.utah.edu:~# make
    -bash: make: command not found
    

    Then you do not have make installed.  Run this to install it (assuming CentOS/RHEL):  yum install make -y

  4. Next command to run, as root, is:  perl -MCPAN -e shell
  5. If you see the following error, your operating system distribution is missing the CPAN shell module:

    Can’t locate CPAN.pm in @INC (@INC contains: /root/bin /usr/local/lib64/perl5 /usr/local/share/perl5 /usr/lib64/perl5/vendor_perl /usr/share/perl5/vendor_perl /usr/lib64/perl5 /usr/share/perl5 .).
    BEGIN failed–compilation aborted.

  6. If that’s the case and you’re on CentOS, just run this: yum install perl-CPAN -y
  7. Try the shell command again: perl -MCPAN -e shell
  8. If this is the first time running that command, you will see one of the following prompts:

    Are you ready for manual configuration? [yes]

    If you see that one, type no and press enter.

    Would you like me to configure as much as possible automatically? [yes]

    If you see that one, just press enter.

  9. After setting up for the first time, when you run “perl -MCPAN -e shell” you’ll typically just see the following interactive shell:
    Terminal does not support AddHistory.
    
    cpan shell -- CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.7602)
    ReadLine support available (try 'install Bundle::CPAN')
    
    cpan>
    
  10. From the “cpan> ” prompt, run:  install Net::IPv6Addr
  11. This is a good example of some things you might encounter when installing modules because it has dependencies on other modules that the CPAN shell will try to help you install.  You should see some output similar to the following when you run the install command; I’ve stripped out some of the file copying and compiling pieces so expect to see even more than what I’ve pasted in here:
    CPAN: Storable loaded ok
    Going to read /root/.cpan/Metadata
    Database was generated on Fri, 12 Jul 2013 11:07:36 GMT
    CPAN: LWP::UserAgent loaded ok
    Fetching with LWP:
    ftp://cpan.cs.utah.edu/CPAN/authors/01mailrc.txt.gz
    Going to read /root/.cpan/sources/authors/01mailrc.txt.gz
    CPAN: Compress::Zlib loaded ok
    Fetching with LWP:
    ftp://cpan.cs.utah.edu/CPAN/modules/02packages.details.txt.gz
    Going to read /root/.cpan/sources/modules/02packages.details.txt.gz
    Database was generated on Mon, 15 Jul 2013 11:17:02 GMT
    
    Fetching with LWP:
    ftp://cpan.cs.utah.edu/CPAN/modules/03modlist.data.gz
    Going to read /root/.cpan/sources/modules/03modlist.data.gz
    Going to write /root/.cpan/Metadata
    Running install for module Net::IPv6Addr
    Running make for T/TM/TMONROE/Net-IPv6Addr-0.2.tar.gz
    Fetching with LWP:
    ftp://cpan.cs.utah.edu/CPAN/authors/id/T/TM/TMONROE/Net-IPv6Addr-0.2.tar.gz
    CPAN: Digest::MD5 loaded ok
    Fetching with LWP:
    ftp://cpan.cs.utah.edu/CPAN/authors/id/T/TM/TMONROE/CHECKSUMS
    
    CPAN.pm: Going to build T/TM/TMONROE/Net-IPv6Addr-0.2.tar.gz
    
    Checking if your kit is complete...
    Looks good
    Warning: prerequisite Math::Base85 0 not found.
    Warning: prerequisite Net::IPv4Addr 0 not found.
    Writing Makefile for Net::IPv6Addr
    ---- Unsatisfied dependencies detected during [T/TM/TMONROE/Net-IPv6Addr-0.2.tar.gz] -----
    Math::Base85
    Net::IPv4Addr
    Shall I follow them and prepend them to the queue
    of modules we are processing right now? [yes]
    
  12. So we’ve hit our first snag.  The Net::IPv6Addr module has two dependencies that this server does not have present; Math::Base85 and Net::IPv4Addr.  Fortunately, you don’t even have to drop back to the prompt and install those first, the shell asks if you’d like to install them first and the default is yes, so just press enter.  Sometimes you may find that you have to go through numerous stages of this to get a module you want installed if it has dependencies and those dependencies have dependencies, etc.  Fortunately these two install by themselves so the rest goes smoothly:
    Delayed until after prerequisites
    Running make install
    Delayed until after prerequisites
    Running install for module Math::Base85
    Running make for T/TM/TMONROE/Math-Base85-0.2.tar.gz
    Fetching with LWP:
    ftp://cpan.cs.utah.edu/CPAN/authors/id/T/TM/TMONROE/Math-Base85-0.2.tar.gz
    Checksum for /root/.cpan/sources/authors/id/T/TM/TMONROE/Math-Base85-0.2.tar.gz ok
    
    CPAN.pm: Going to build T/TM/TMONROE/Math-Base85-0.2.tar.gz
    
    Checking if your kit is complete...
    Looks good
    Writing Makefile for Math::Base85
    cp Base85.pm blib/lib/Math/Base85.pm
    Manifying blib/man3/Math::Base85.3pm
    /usr/bin/make  -- OK
    Running make install
    Installing /usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8/Math/Base85.pm
    Installing /usr/share/man/man3/Math::Base85.3pm
    Writing /usr/lib64/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8/x86_64-linux-thread-multi/auto/Math/Base85/.packlist
    Appending installation info to /usr/lib64/perl5/5.8.8/x86_64-linux-thread-multi/perllocal.pod
    /usr/bin/make install  -- OK
    Running install for module Net::IPv4Addr
    Running make for F/FR/FRAJULAC/Net-IPv4Addr-0.10.tar.gz
    Fetching with LWP:
    ftp://cpan.cs.utah.edu/CPAN/authors/id/F/FR/FRAJULAC/Net-IPv4Addr-0.10.tar.gz
    Fetching with LWP:
    ftp://cpan.cs.utah.edu/CPAN/authors/id/F/FR/FRAJULAC/CHECKSUMS
    Checksum for /root/.cpan/sources/authors/id/F/FR/FRAJULAC/Net-IPv4Addr-0.10.tar.gz ok
    
    CPAN.pm: Going to build F/FR/FRAJULAC/Net-IPv4Addr-0.10.tar.gz
    
    Checking if your kit is complete...
    Looks good
    Writing Makefile for Net::IPv4Addr
    
    Running make install
    Manifying blib/man1/ipv4calc.1
    Manifying blib/man3/Net::IPv4Addr.3pm
    Installing /usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8/auto/Net/IPv4Addr/autosplit.ix
    Installing /usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8/Net/IPv4Addr.pm
    Installing /usr/share/man/man1/ipv4calc.1
    Installing /usr/share/man/man3/Net::IPv4Addr.3pm
    Installing /usr/bin/ipv4calc
    Writing /usr/lib64/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8/x86_64-linux-thread-multi/auto/Net/IPv4Addr/.packlist
    Appending installation info to /usr/lib64/perl5/5.8.8/x86_64-linux-thread-multi/perllocal.pod
    /usr/bin/make install  -- OK
    Running make for T/TM/TMONROE/Net-IPv6Addr-0.2.tar.gz
    Is already unwrapped into directory /root/.cpan/build/Net-IPv6Addr-0.2
    
    CPAN.pm: Going to build T/TM/TMONROE/Net-IPv6Addr-0.2.tar.gz
    
    Running make install
    Installing /usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8/Net/IPv6Addr.pm
    Installing /usr/share/man/man3/Net::IPv6Addr.3pm
    Writing /usr/lib64/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8/x86_64-linux-thread-multi/auto/Net/IPv6Addr/.packlist
    Appending installation info to /usr/lib64/perl5/5.8.8/x86_64-linux-thread-multi/perllocal.pod
    /usr/bin/make install  -- OK
    
    
  13. And there we have it, Net::IPv6Addr is now installed along with its prerequisites so any perl script you want to run that has a “use Net::IPv6Addr” at the top will now have what it needs.

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